Dynamic stall

See also Dynamic Stall Research

Pilots and aerodynamicists are all familiar with the effects of stall when a wing is at a fairly constant angle of attack: the air flow over the wing separates so that it no longer follows the wing’s contours, and the wing can’t produce as much lift as expected or desired. To recover from a stalled condition, the pilot must decrease the angle of attack by pushing the stick forward. An increase in power is also helpful to build up airspeed, which is the sine qua non of lift production.

This scenario is called “static stall,” since the angle of attack changes very little over the time during which the flow separates from the wing. Typical stall angles of attack range from 10 - 15 degrees.

The flow field development is radically different if the angle of attack continues to increase while the flow separates. At first the flow remains attached, so the lift continues to increase well beyond what is experienced in the static case. Researchers have measured lift up to seven times greater than normal!

This scenario is called “dynamic stall,” since the angle of attack is constantly changing. The dynamic stall angle of attack is a function of the pitch rate, as discussed below.

We decided to investigate dynamic stall experimentally using hydrogen bubble flow visualization in our water tunnel. The results gave us a very good qualitative understanding of the dynamic stall process, but they didn’t provide any quantitative information beyond the angle of attack and pitch rate.

I modified a fully compressible, time-accurate Navier-Stokes solver to simulate the motions of virtual hydrogen bubbles while computing velocity, pressure, and temperature. This gave us quantitative information which has only been verified to date using surface pressure measurements, and the underlying physical cause that induces leading edge separation has remained elusive.

In the images above you can compare our experimental and computational flow visualizations for angles of attack of 12 deg, 21 deg, and 31 deg. The experiments are on the left, and the computations are on the right. Both capture the physical phenomena of dynamic stall: At the static stall angle of attack (12 deg; the top images), the flow remains attached, as though nothing unusual were happening. At 21 degrees (the middle images), a small “bubble” forms near the leading edge. This bubble grows into a large structure called the dynamic stall vortex, seen dominating the flow over the leading edge at 31 degrees (the lower images). As time progresses, the vortex is swept downstream, where it eventually winds up in the wake of the airfoil. As long as the vortex remains located above the wing, it acts to enhance the lift being produced. After the vortex is shed from the airfoi, lift decreases abruptly, and just when you needed that lift the most, the wing stops flying.

Other sources are welcomed, including additional analysis from Dave Santos, who seems to have discovered the potential of dynamic stall in the AWE field.

Could such potential be beneficial for phased production modes such as reel-out/in yo-yo mode, in crosswind or even in aligned (static) flight? For some other modes such as What is possible with Payne's patent US3987987 figure 5? ?

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[…] We present different case studies of the driver to illustrate its application to concepts such as: multi-rotors, kites, or vertical axis wind turbines. […]

1 Introduction
Horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT) have been the main-stream focus of the wind energy community in the past few decades and most aerodynamic tools have been centered around such a concept. This is, for instance, the case for the multi-physics solver OpenFAST (OpenFAST, 2021) developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The OpenFAST solver has been dedicated to HAWT and cannot study other wind energy concepts such as: vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT), kites, airborne wind energy concepts, and arbitrary assemblies of rotors and blades/wings. This article attempts to bridge this gap by focusing on adding new aerodynamic functionalities to the aerodynamic model of OpenFAST, named AeroDyn. This first step can later be followed by extending the structural dynamics modules to accommodate these different concepts. […]

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In this work, we added two dynamic stall models to AeroDyn: the Boeing-Vertol (BV) model (also present in CACTUS (Murray and Barone, 2011)), and the dynamic stall model of Øye (Øye, 1991; Branlard, 2017).

Another paper on https://www.researchgate.net/publication/338451572_A_simple_model_for_deep_dynamic_stall_conditions : A simple model for deep dynamic stall conditions Wiley
Authors: * Benedetto RocchioBenedetto Rocchio

This paper is available for reading on https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/we.2463.

Very Interesting, Pierre. :slight_smile: